The blue superscript numbers within the text refer to bibliographic references that appear only in Hebrew at the site:
37 B.C.E.324 C.E. Roman Period
37 B.C.E70 C.E. Roman Period I (Herodian dynasty)
4 B.C.E. The Roman Proconsul Publius Quinctilius Varus assembles his army in Acre in order to suppress the revolts that break out in the country following the death of Herod.13
37 C.E. Lucius Vitellius, Proconsul of Syria, departs from Acre to fight against the city of Petra in the land east of the Jordan River.
37 41 During the reign of the Emperor Gaius Caligula, a Roman force, led by Petronius the governor of Syria, arrives at the Acre port. Caligula himself may have possibly visited Acre.
52 54 During the rule of the emperor Claudius there is once more a building drive in Acre and veterans of the legions settled here. As a result Claudius granted Acre the title Colonia Claudia Felix Ptolemais.
56 The Roman rulers in the Land of Israel engage in road building. A colony of discharged soldiers in Acre, then called Akko-Ptolemais, is mentioned on a monument of coastal limestone dedicated to the emperor Nero, placed along the Roman viae (highway).
59 In the spring, Peter and Paul (Saul of Tarsus), Apostles of Jesus, spend a day in Acre.
66 Gessius Florus, the Roman Procurator of Judea, conducts a massacre of the Jews living in Acre.
66/68 Vespasian, the Roman military commander (soon to be emperor), accompanied by Josephus (Titus Flavius Josephus) sets forth from Acre to suppress the Jewish rebellion in the Galilee.
80 The future emperor Titus arrives in Acre to aid his father Vespasian in conducting his protracted war in the Galilee against the Jewish rebellion there.
70180 Roman Period II
2nd and 3rd century Rabban Gamliel II, Nasi (leader) of the Sanhedrin, resides in Acre for a period of time at the beginning of the 2nd Century, perhaps due to persecution by the Romans. The Amora (renowned Jewish scholar) Rabbi Abba of Akko is the leader of the Jewish community during the 2nd century. Later, Rabbis Shimon ben Yehuda, Yehuda ben Agra, Tanchum ben Hiyya, Abba, Hezekiah Akkaya, and Yitzhak resided in Acre.
130 132 The port of Acre is used as a base for the Roman Legions setting forth to suppress the Bar-Kochba revolt.
131 The Roman emperor Hadrian visits Acre.
180324 Roman Period III
132135 Samaritans immigrate to Acre following the Bar-Kochba revolt and establish a Samaritan center. 14
190 Clarus, the Bishop of Acre, participates in a council of Christian leaders. 15, 16
Beginning of the 3rd century Rabbi Mana of Acre doesnt hesitate to express his open opposition to Rabbi Yehudahs judgments regarding Shmita, (in the Land of Israel, the one year in a seven-year cycle when all tilled land is fallow and debts are canceled). 17
231 The Roman Emperor Alexander Severus probably passed through Acre on his way to war against the Sassanid Empire (Parthian kingdom?). 18
3rd century 4th century Acre is included within the domain of Tzippori. 19
324451 Byzantine Period I
325 The Bishop Aeneas of Acre participates in the First Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council of the Christian Church, called to resolve the nature of Jesus.
351 Constantius Gallus, the Roman Consul in the Land of Israel, suppresses the Jewish rebellion (the War against Gallus), including the massacre of the Jews of Acre. 20
381 The Bishop of Acre, ๐๗่เแๅ๑ participates in the second ecumenical council, the First Council of Constantinople.
425 The Galilee is included within the area of Palaestina Secunda (the Galilee, the lower Jezreel Valley, the regions east of Galilee, and the western part of the former Decapolis with the seat of government at Scythopolis/Beit She'an), but Acre remains under Phoenician rule.
451640 Byzantine Period II
451 Paulus (Paul) is the Bishop of Acre.
536 John is the Bishop of Acre.
570 A traveler from the Italian city of Piacenza comes to Acre.
614 A major Jewish revolt against the Byzantines takes place.
616 The Persians complete their conquest of the Land of Israel, including Acre. Under the Persians aegis, the Jews riot and turn upon the Christians and their churches in Acre, forcing the priest Leontinus to convert to Judaism. 21
622 Muhammad sets out from Mecca, the city of his birth, and relocates in Medina.
634 Yaakov the Apostate takes part in a religious controversy, noting that he torched a church in Acre and took part in the burning of both Jewish and Christian holy writings. Likewise, he points out that there is a Samaritan synagogue in Acre port. 22 It could be that the Samaritans had resided in Acre since the 2nd century. 23
636 Acre is conquered for the first time by a Moslems army, commanded by Amr ibn al-Aas, and is now included within the district of Jordan. The former name Ptolemais (in use since the time of Alexander the Great) is revoked, reverting to the Arabic name, Akka.
6401099 Early Arabic Period
7th century There is Samaritan neighborhood in Acre known as the Samaritan Ptolemais - Samothrace.
660750 The Umayyad Caliphate.
660 Muawiyah I founds the reign of the Umayyad dynasty and Caliphate. He establishes in Acre a large shipyard and workshops for the building of marine vessels.
685 Acre is laid ruin during one of the conflicts that characterizes the early Arab period. Acre is rebuilt on its ruins during the reign of the Umayyad ruler Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705).
692 Acre is completely destroyed by the Byzantines.
723 Saint Willibald, Bishop of Eichstätt in Bavaria, passes through Ptolemais (Acre) along with his companions, on their way to Lebanon. 24a
724744 Acre is destroyed during the time of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and he moves the shipyard to Tyre.
744750 Acre is completely rebuilt during the time of his successor Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan (Marwan II).
7501258 The Abbasid Caliphate
861 The Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutawakkil relocates the shipyard to Acre from Tyre, reinforcess Acre with an army and naval ships, to prevent an attack from the Byzantines. He dies in this year. 25
881 A tsunami strikes Acre.
868884 The Emir Ahmad ibn Ṭūlūn is the governor of Egypt. During his rule, in 878, the Moslem architect Abu Bakr builds the port of Acre and also the inner wall that will later be rebuilt by Dahr al-Omar.
969 Control passes to the Shiite Fatimid Caliphate. Acre is at this time part of the district of Jordan.
975 A Byzantine army arrives at Acre.
985 The Moslem geographer and historian Al-Maqdisi describes Acre and its port from the period of ibn Ṭūlūn. The governor of Acre now is ๘โ'เ เ์ ๖๗์เแ้ Raja al_ of the ็๎ใเ๐้ํ tribe. 26
1019/20 Abu Bakr เ์ๅเ๑่้ Khatib, the preacher of Jerusalems Al-Aqsa mosque, writes his Praises of Jerusalem (Shivchei Yerushalayim), in which Acre too merits praise. This manuscript is later discovered in the al-Jazzar Mosque. 27
1031 The family of Yoshiya ben Aaron , later the presiding rabbi of the rabbinic court Yeshivat Eretz Israel, resides in Acre. 28 Yoshiya is remembered for purchasing books in Acre. 24a
1031 Acre possibly suffers slight damage from a tsunami following an earthquake.
1039/40 Rabbi Avraham ben Solomon Gaon is active in a community near Ramla (a Galilee locale of this name), apparently referring to Acre. 29
1041 Eliyahu ben Aaron copies a book while in Acre. The liturgical poet Aaron Hacohen ben Maryoun mentions the important Jewish community in Acre. 24a
1047 The Moslem-Persian historian Nasir-i-Khusrau visits Acre. He notes: On the first day I went to visit the tomb of Ake, the founder of the city. 30 Likewise, he describes the port 31 and the splendid mosque. 32
1057 Thamal, a Bedouin tribesman of the Banu-Kilab, is the ruler of Acre. 33
1063 Acre may have been damaged by a small tsunami following an earthquake.
1067 According to Arabic sources Acre suffers earthquake damage. 34
10711098 Acre is serially transfered from one ruling dynasty to another: from the Fatimid rulers to the Turkoman-Seljuk rulers. Among the Turkoman rulers are เ๚๑้ๆ เแ๏ เๅ๗ and ๙๗์้ Among the Egyptian Fatimids: Badr al-Jamali. 35 His son and successor, the Wazir al-Malik al-Afdel, was born in Acre and possibly was the builder of the stronghold in the citys southwest, where the Templars would later build their Citadel. 36
1083 Evyatar ben Eliyahu Hacohen, head of the Yeshiva (Talmudic academy) of Tyre, passes through Acre on his way to Haifa. In the Megilat Evyatar, he emphasizes in his writings that the Jewish community of Acre was one of the most important in the Land of Israel. In the megillah (scroll) is mentioned: the scholar Muallem of Acre, the landowner Ephraim ben Yosef, the spice merchant al-Atar, and the sugar merchant Faraj of Acre.
1095 Acre has a Jewish court of law and a center for Torah study. 37
1096 The first Crusade is launched.