The Bronze and Iron Ages

2350 – 2200 B.C.E. – Early Bronze Age IV1

2250 B.C.E. (approx.) – possible appearance of the name for Acre in the archives of Ebla, a city in Syria 2. Acre is positively identified with Tel al-Fukhkhar (Tel Akko) until at least the end of the Iron Age.

2200 – 2000 B.C.E. – Middle Bronze Age I

2000 – 1750 B.C.E. – Middle Bronze Age II

20th century B.C.E. – the name of the Egyptian Pharaoh Senusret I (1971 – 1926 B.C.E.), was found on a scarab from Tel Akko. Acre used at this time as an Egyptian stronghold on the Canaan coast.

18th-19th century B.C.E. – Ake (Akko) is first mentioned in the Egyptian Execration Texts (Proscription Lists), which are dated to the thirteenth dynasty. The king of the city was úøòí who was of Semitic origin. The Execration Texts are figurines or pieces of clay upon which were incised maledictions and curses against Canaanite cities that revolted against the Egyptians.

1750 – 1500 B.C.E. – Middle Bronze Age III

1500 – 1400 B.C.E. – Late Bronze Age I

1468 (1478) B.C.E. – the name Akka (Acre) appears on the walls of the Temple of Amun at Karnak (Egypt), in a list of Canaanite cities that fell to Pharaoh Thutmose III (1490-1426 or 1504-1451 B.C.E., 18th dynasty).

1400 – 1300 B.C.E. – Late Bronze Age II

1364 – 1347 B.C.E. – Acre and its kings Surata and his son and heir Satatna (names are of Indo-Persian origin 2a, p.206) vassals of the Egyptian regime, are mentioned in thirteen of the Tel el-Amarna Letters, from the time of Pharaohs Amenhotep III and IV (Akhenaton). For example, the Babylonian King Burna-Buriash complains in writing to Amenhotep IV, that one of his trade caravans was robbed by Satatna son of Surata from Acre 3 It is additionally noted that one of the Canaanite kings frosouth of Canaan fought the Habiru at Jerusalem and the kings of Shim’on Shomron and Acre sent chariots to his aid. 4 An additional mention in one of the letters tells that the ruler of Acre requested that an Egyptian expeditionary force, including 400 soldiers and 30 pair of horses, be sent to Acre with the goal of preserve its status and importance as a port city and crossroads.

14th – 13th century B.C.E. – Acre is mentioned in administrative documents that were found in Ugarit, a prosperous port city in northern Syria.

1300-1200 B.C.E. – Late Bronze Age III

1314 – 1290 B.C.E. – Pharaoh Seti I (19th dynasty) organized several campaigns to the Land of Canaan in order to stabilize the Egyptian rule in the region. The name Ak (Acre) appears in a topographic listing from Seti’s time as one of the cities that surrendered to his army.

1290 – 1242 B.C.E. – Ramses II, the son of Seti I, organized campaigns of conquest in Canaan and thus arrived at Acre. In the Papyrus Anastasi I from the time of Ramses, Acre is mentioned as situated between Tyre and Achshaph.

1200 – 1150 B.C.E. Iron Age (Israel) I A

13th century B.C.E. – Conquest of the Land of Canaan by the Tribes of Israel. The Bible (Judges 1:31) states, regarding Acre, “Asher drove not out the inhabitants of Acco…” from which it is known that Acre remained a Canaanite (Phoenician) city at the time. Likewise, 22 cities in the domain of the tribe of Asher are mentioned in the Bible (Joshua 19:30) and one of them, Ummah, could possibly be referring to Acre.

1150 – 1000 B.C.E. – Iron Age I B

12th century B.C.E. – In a document from early in this century found in the northern Syrian city of Ugarit, the king of Tyre informs Ammurapi, the king of Ugarit, that the cargo ship which the latter sent was anchored at port of Acre (opinions differ whether the anchorage was at the Na’aman River, which ran next to Tel Akko, or at the harbor’s present location in the north of Haifa bay). 2a pp. 80, 172

1000 – 925 B.C.E. – Iron Age II A (United Monarchy of the Kingdom of Israel)
10th century B.C.E. – During the period of the United Monarchy, Acre is remembered as a city fortified at the time of Lulu, king of Sidon. King Solomon transferred to King Hiram I of Tyre “twenty cities in the Land of the Galilee” (Kings I 9:11) and it is reasonable to suppose Acre was included among them.

925 -800 B.C.E. – Iron Age II B

9th – 8th century B.C.E. – The channel of the Na’aman River was used for sailing, and an anchorage was built at its mouth, which was further north than its present location. Acre was the southern boundary of the domain of Phoenician rule. According to tradition, glass was first produced by the Phoenicians at a site close to the Na’aman’s outlet to the sea.

800 – 720 B.C.E. – Iron Age III A

725 B.C.E. – Acre rebels against Shalmaneser V, King of Assyria.

720 – 587 B.C.E. – Iron Age III B (Kingdom of Judea)

701 B.C.E. – During King Sennacherib of Assyria’s campaign along the Phoenician coast, the king of Sidon fled and abandoned the cities of his domain, Acre among them, to the Assyrian conqueror. Esarhaddon, the son of Sennacherib, appointed Acre as a port city in the district of Tyre. 4a p. 18

680 – 669 B.C.E. – The name of Acre appears in a listing of the cities with which King Esarhaddon of Assyria made covenants. 5

643 B.C.E. – Acre was conquered by King Ashurbanipal of Assyria. 6

600 B.C.E. (approx.) – Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard to Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon, notes that he did not exile the harvesters of the snail “from the Ladder of Tyre to Haifa.” It may be inferred that he included the inhabitants of Acre who worked in the production of argaman (purple-blue) dye from the sea snails (banded dye-murex, Hexaplex trunculus) found in the waters of Akko Bay.


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