The Ottoman Period – part A

1517–1917 C.E. – The Ottoman Period

1526 – The Turk Piri Reis publishes a map of the Acre coast in his “Book of the Nautical Subjects.” Acre is situated at the center, or just south, of the bay, although its name does not appear 118.

1532 – In a map of the Land of Israel by Jacob Ziegler, Acre appears under the name Ptolemais 119.

1535 – A Jew from Safed notes that port of Acre is the source of wheat exported to the West 120. An agreement is signed between King Francis I of France and the Ottoman Sultan regarding special rights for French in the Acre port 121.

1541 – In a woodcut map by Michael Villanovus (Servetus), based on notations and maps of Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) from the 2nd century, Acre—called Ptolemais—appears quite far from the appears

1549 – The French traveler Anthoine Regnaut reports on commerce and the collection of taxes and customs duties in Acre 124.

1550 – Sebastian Munster, a German map-maker and Hebrew scholar, makes a map of Acre and also paints a fanciful depiction of the city. The city appears under the names Ptolemais Aca, and Acon 125.

1556–1570 – Christian Schrott, a map-maker to the court of King Phillip II of Spain, drafts the outline for a map by Petrus Laicstain, the Dutch cartographer. Acre appears prominently, north of the bay, under the name Acon and Ptholemais 126.

1560 – Michael Avi-Yonah (professor of Archaeology and History of Art at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem) show a woodcut map produced in this year of the Land of Israel at the time of the Romans. The city of Acre appears as Polem 127.

1581 – In an article, Yitzhak Ben Zvi (the historian and former President of Israel) refers to a woodcut map of the Holy Land made in this year. Acre appears as Ptholemais, within the domain of the Tribe of Asher 129.

1582 – The Tsar Ivan IV, Ivan the Terrible, sends the merchant Tryphon Korovienikov to the Land of Israel. In all probability he visits Acre 130.

1585 – Medieval cartographer Gerardus Mercator, one of the most important map-makers of all time, publishes a map of the area. Acre appears as Ptholemais and Acon, and the Na’aman stream is indicated as the Blus torrens. The map also shows the domains of the Tribes of Israel, although without distinct borders 131.

1586 – The Belgian pilgrim Zuellart visits Acre and in his description exaggerates its significance, calling it the most important commercial city in the Holy Land 132.

1586–1635 – The period of the rule of the Druze emir Fakhr al-Din from the Ma’an dynasty.

1588 – Under the rule of Fakhr al-Din taxes are already being collected from Christian travelers arriving in Acre and on commerce conducted there 133.

1593 – The map of Gerard de Jude is published. Acre, situated in the domain of the Tribe of Asher, appears as Ptolemais 128.

1600 – Flemish theologian Petrus Plancius publishes a map of the Middle East during biblical times. Acre appears as Ptolemais 134.

1610 – The British traveler George Sandys visits Acre and describes its ruins in detail 135.

1612 – The Scots pilgrim Lithgow notes that the commerce in Acre is much weaker than in the past 136.

1620 – The Franciscans return to Acre during the rule of the Druze emir Fakhr ad-Din II.

1623 – Baptiste Turchet is the French consul in Acre 137.

1629 – The Danish map-maker Willem Janszoon Blaeu publishes a map of the Middle East. Acre and the Belus stream appear within the domain of the Tribe of Asher 138.

1629–1634 – The French monk and missionary Eugene Roger visits the Land of Israel and Acre.

1630 – Thomas Fuller, an English churchman and historian, publishes a map of the Lower Galilee and the domain of the Tribe of Zebulun. Acre and the Carmel are prominently featured. The Yiftachel stream appears as the source of the Shihor Libnah stream which empties into the sea beside Acre. The Yiftachel stream is a tributary of the Tsippori stream that discharges into the Kishon river. It may be that the Shihor Libnah is the Kishon 139. There is no mention of the Na’aman stream despite its appearing on previous maps as the Belus stream 140.

1635–1645 – Binyamin Abendana lives in Acre and serves as a translator for the Flemish consul.

1635 – The rule of Fakhr ad-Din II comes to an end in Acre. In the city, rulers one after another war with Malkham bin Younis and Fakher’s son Qurqumaz. Giovanni Battista Cavallini marks Acre, by the name Acri, in a “Portolan” Atlas (navigational charts based on realistic descriptions of ports and coasts) of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea 141.

1636 – The German pilgrim Georg Christoph von Neitzschitz mourns the magnificent past of Acre and its harbor, now filled in with sand 142.

1638 – A map of Acre, by the Bolognese cleric and pilgrim Domenico Laffi, is published in Bologna, Italy.

1640 – The Carmelite monk Trinita visits Acre and describes its churches and the obstructed and poorly functioning harbor 143.

1648 –Turkish traveler Evliya Celebi visits Acre and describes how some of the structures in the city are being slowly covered by the sands 144.

1652 – The monk Jonah the Small from the central Tsarist Russian monastery arrives in the Land of Israel and Acre on his own initiative.145 Canon Jean Doubdan, a French traveler, also arrives in Acre and describes its churches 146.

1656 – The traveler Ignatius von Rheinfelden arrives in Acre 147.

1658 – The French traveler Laurent d’Arvieux visits Acre and describes in great detail the destroyed structures in the city, including the Church of St. John and the Church of St. Andreas. For the first time, a hostel is established for Catholics coming to Acre.

1664–1708 – Muhammad ibn Tabbai rules Acre, followed by the emir Bashir from Lebanon.

1666 – French physician Gabriel Bremond visits Acre and reports that the Church of St. Nicholas (called the Church of St. George starting from the mid-18th C.) serves the Greek Orthodox and Maronite communities. Bremond had previously visited the Holy Land in 1652 148.

1673 – Acre is situated in the domain of the Vilayet of Sidon, and the Governor of Acre is subordinate to the Governor of Sidon. However, the Vali (ruler) of Sidon exercises only weak control.

1675 – A Metropolitan named Yehoasaf serves as the head of the Church of St. Nicholas (later, of St. George)149. Prussian explorer Otto Friedrich von der Groeben, visits in Acre and remarks: “…The Turksruin almost every beautiful city and build ugly cities so not to arouse in the Christians a desire to take their cities from them …” 150.

1679 – The Dutch artist and pilgrim Cornelius de Bruin visits Acre and paints the Hospitaller center and the Church of St. Andreas.

1685–1687 – A delegation on behalf of King Louis XIV of France, the Sun King, arrives in Acre. Gravier d’Orcieres paints Acre (possibly the same Orcieres who had come to Acre twenty years previously).

1687 – The Frenchman Morison notes that sand and ash from the vicinity of Acre are sent by ship to Italy for its glass industry 151.

1695 – Abraham bar Jacob publishes a map in Hebrew within the “Haggadah of Amsterdam” The name Acre does not appear, although Shihor Libnat does 152.

1697 – The Anglican priest Henry Maundrell visits Acre and describes the Christians’ buildings in the city 153.

1702 – Italian rabbi Avraham Rovigo arrives in Acre and relates many particulars regarding the city’s Jews 154.

1704 – The al-Raml Mosque is founded in the heart of the souk.

1705 – The Dominican monk Sartena tells of a Turkish pirate who arrives in Acre and offers to sell slaves to the Pasha 155.

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